Due to the unrest in Turkey, our Mediterranean cruise was re-routed to call in Kotor, Montenegro.
We decided to ride the Hop On Hop Off bus because the Bay of Kotor has a few nearby towns worth visiting. On the way back to Kotor, Igor, one of the bus guides, joined us for lunch and told us about the situation in his hometown. Even though Kotor has seen an increase in tourism due to the number of cruise ships visiting, it’s economy is barely functioning. In the off season, the whole area is just a sleepy little hamlet.
Igor recommended the cafe where he always eats lunch. It’s right in the old town and associated with the Hotel Kattaro. We enjoyed Montenegro’s own beer, Niksicko; and the local mussels fresh from the mussel farms in the Bay of Kotor were excellent!
(Click on any image for a larger view…)
An old seafaring town in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro.
Walls and Church Above Kotor
We did NOT climb the 1500 steps! It's better done in cooler weather, and not in the middle of the day.
A rather handsome griffin on the old city walls of Kotor, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The walls were built in the middle ages.
Local mussels and Montenegro beer!
Having a beer with Igor, our Hop On Hop Off bus guide.
A window in Perast, Montenegro displays the Venetian architecture that is prevalent in this town.
St Nicholas Church
The 17th century St Nicholas Church of Perast, Montenegro.
The oldest discovered image of Hypnos, the Greek god of sleep - a mosaic on the floor of 2nd century ruins in Risan,
St George and Our Lady of the Rocks
These two islets are in front of Perast, Montenegro. Our Lady of the Rocks is an artificial island built by sailors to fulfill a promise. Legend says that a couple sailors once found a rock with the image of Mary on it. Thereafter, whenever any sailors returned from a voyage they threw a rock in the bay on that spot. Eventually, an island formed.
Kotor Bay Map
This deep inlet offers a well protected harbor. The kidney shape Bay of Kotor is divided into Risan Bay on the left and Kotor on the right by town of Perast in the middle.
Today, the waterfront of Tiberias is a little tacky in spite of the new construction of expensive high rises. We ignored all those little stands selling “authentic” Chinese merchandise and the overpriced tourist restaurants.
Back in the days of the Roman Empire, Jesus did most of his teaching near the Sea of Galilee. In 135 CE, the Jews moved their cultural center to Tiberias because they were banished from Jerusalem as punishment for rebelling. The Sea of Galilee was a thriving and vibrant hub of civilization, activity and trade until the Byzantines lost control to an Arab Caliphate in the seventh century.
We stayed in a very nice one bedroom apartment called Lakeside Kinneret View Apartment that we found on booking.com. Kinneret is another name for the Sea of Galilee. We spent our time climbing the mountains, hiking the trails and fording the streams in the wonderful national parks all around the lake.
One of the secrets of using booking.com is to search for a place with your login, but not book it. After an hour or two, they email you with better deals.
We bought jumbo Medjool dates, fresh figs, whole wheat pita, goat cheese, olives and Tishbi merlot wine and found great spots to picnic.
There is an excellent Arab restaurant, Tanureen, by the village Migdal a few kilometers north of Tiberias. We spent a long evening there, speaking Hebrew, Italian and English to many of the restaurant guests who we met. We needed many hours to even make a dent in the number of salad dishes served. In Israel, a lot of petrol stations on major roads have restaurants on their property and this was just another fine dining experience behind the gas pumps.
The cliffs of Arbel offer the most incredible views of the Sea of Galilee. For a little extreme adventure, you can descend the cliffs by a path that coincides with both the Jesus Trail and the Israel National Trail (the trail that traverses the entire length of the country). The descent passes by 17th century cliff dwellings of the Druze. We decided to forego the extreme hike in the 100°F/38°C Israeli summer and save our aging knees for other parks.
Rather than climbing down cliffs in the hot sun, how about a nice walk in a cool stream in the shade? That’s what we did in the Bet Tseida Forest. This National nature reserve has a trail through the Daliyot stream of cool, refreshing water up to your calves, or maybe thighs in some places depending on how tall you are. It’s a delightful way to spend an afternoon.
We drove clockwise around the lake and returned to Tiberias via the Switzerland Forest Scenic Road which, about half way, merges with the Israel National Trail. It has fantastic views of the southern part of the Sea of Galilee. The driver, however, has to keep his eye on the winding road. Same in life, right?
About an hour drive south from Tiberias as we were on our way to Jerusalem, is another incredible place to spend a hot afternoon in the water. The Amal Stream is a warm water spring that keeps the swimming holes in this national park at a constant temperature. The developed park is a great place to spend the day if you bring your shade structure (or get there before anyone else to claim the shady spots!).
There’s a foot cleaning station on each set of stairs leading into the water. It’s provided free by countless little fish. There is also an old water mill on site, a preferred location for those bathers who arrive early; and The Museum of Regional and Mediterranean Archaeology.
Travel Tip: The Israel National Parks Pass is well worth the money if you like trails. We figure that we broke even with just four parks.
The beginnings of masks, jesters, debauchery and partying go back in time beyond pre-history; but the origin of that particular party that many countries call Carnival is more recent. Although no one is really sure, there’s a good chance it started in Northern Italy.
As the Roman Catholic Church tightened its grip on Western civilization, the practice of abstaining from meat and strong drink (alcoholic!) for the 40 days between Ash Wednesday and Easter became common. This period is known as Lent in Catholicism, and the observant are expected to eat simply and lightly for the whole time, to mark Jesus’s forty days fasting in the desert.
The last day to eat meat and drink wine was the day before Ash Wednesday. In the old Italian language, the words “carne levare” comes from the Latin “to lift out the meat”, or to take it away from the diet. “Carne-levare” became “Carni-val” – the very last chance to eat meat and drink alcohol before six weeks of abstinence.
In Venice, Italy, having feasts and masquerade balls before Ash Wednesday started sometime in the 11th century. Venice has the oldest, and most famous of all Carnivals in the world. Over the centuries, the practice of feasting just before the Lenten period spread to many predominately Catholic areas. Even in mostly-Hindu India, the area of Goa celebrates with coconut and jaggery filled crepes, because the colony was founded by the Catholic Portuguese. New Orleans, originally French, calls it Mardi Gras, which, in English, means Fat Tuesday.
Carnival and Samba in Brazil
Probably the second most famous Carnival (and maybe the first because Venice Carnival took a long hiatus in the 19th century), is the one in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Rio Carnival’s history is closely intertwined with samba music. When the Portuguese brought slaves to Brazil, the slaves brought their drums and gods from Africa. Force-fed Catholicism in the New World, the Africans invented a kind of underground amalgam of African gods and Catholic saints, called condomble. After a condomble ceremony, the Afro-Brazilians celebrated with music and dancing that was the earliest form of samba.
At the beginning of the 1900s, samba music was influenced by other styles, then picked up and transformed by professional musicians in Rio de Janeiro. The “official” beginning of samba is a song called Pelo Telefono written in 1916. In the 1940s, Carmen Miranda helped to spread this uniquely Brazilian music and dance. Deena and I were fortunate to see an amazing show marking the 100th anniversary of Samba.
Samba music and dance became an integral part of the Carnival partying and drinking before Lent. Altogether, Samba and Carnival, are a huge, month-long party in Brazil. The celebration in Salvador, Bahia has been dubbed the largest street party in the world by the Guinness Book of Records. In Rio, the parades and costumes are majestically grand.
The Contest and Parades
Carnival in Brazil was once nothing more than a group of friends having a party. Everyone had to get the temptations out of the house for lent, and what better way than to have a block party with all your friends to barbecue whatever meat is in the house and drink all the remaining liquor? It had to be finished before Lent; and of course, you could always tell your boss you’d be late in the morning because you had to go to church for Ash Wednesday.
This started long before the age of boom boxes so everyone brought their drums, chocalhos and pandeiras. Somewhere in the late 1800s, these parties started moving through the streets with their music, dancers and revelers. They were called cordões (cords or strings in English). Today, cordões are usually called blocos. The term blocos, or “blocks” for block party, reflects the neighborhood nature of the original Carnival.
Eventually, some of those early cordões became bigger and a little more organized. The paraders wore costumes and sang a particular samba song. In 1929, the very first contest took place between three of these groups. The winner of this first contest was “Oswaldo Cruz,” which later became the Samba School Portela – the same school that Ivan and Deena paraded with in the Sambadrome for Rio Carnival 2016.
Over the years, the Rio carnival parade contest became more and more organized. In 1984, the contest moved into its very own space called the Sambadrome which was designed by Brazil’s most famous architect, Oscar Neimeyer. In this photo of us in the Sambadrome, you can see in the background what looks like it might be a McDonald’s M. It’s not. It is, in fact, an abstract derriere, butt, behind, or, in Brazilian Portuguese, bunda. It’s a symbol of admiration for the grace and speed at which Brazilian women can samba.
From that first challenge among three cordões, the Rio Carnival has grown into a huge contest to see who has the best Carnival parade. It is an honor to be champion, and the competition is fierce. The contestants are now called Samba Schools, although no one really goes there for an education. Instead, the Samba Schools are social clubs for their neighborhood. They are large organizations which put together fantastic parades for the annual contest.
Each year, the association of samba schools announces a general idea. From that idea, each school creates a theme, a new samba song, costumes and floats. From all the samba schools, 12 finalists parade by the judges in the Sambadrome on the Sunday and Monday nights before Ash Wednesday. The parades start at sundown and go through the night until dawn.
There is nothing in the world quite like the Rio Carnival parades. Each of the finalist parades has 200-400 percussionists that are completely in sync. Each parade has 4,000-5,000 people in costume singing and dancing in unison; and a half-dozen or more fantastic floats with dancers and singers on them.
Back to the Streets!
Like so many other events, popularity, capitalism and inflation pushed the price of the seats in the Sambadrome beyond the range of the average person in Rio. Samba schools and block parties that were the lowly origin of the event were created by the poor and the lower middle class. No longer can the poor attend the event that they once owned.
Even the parade costumes have become too expensive for the favelados (slum dwellers) who are the members of the samba schools. We asked one of the organizers why our costumes were so expensive (by Brazilian standards), and we were told plainly that tourists help pay for the costumes for the locals. It’s one of those few times in life when you actually feel good about overpaying.
A movement back to the streets has been in place for a few years now. While the samba schools still have the contest in the Sambadrome, they also now have their own parade in their own neighborhood. There are over 500 known blocos (block) parties in Rio, and probably several hundred more that are not published.
There is even an Occupy Carnival (Ocupa Carnaval) group that promotes taking back the event that was once the province of the people.
The block parties start ramping up in December and are literally all over the city by the time Carnival rolls around. Some of the block parties have been in place for many years and have huge followings.
Some of the big block parties are a celebration of a theme, like the old and famous Banda Ipanema which is a cross-dressing and LGBT celebration. Some, like Simpatia é Quase Amor (which, very tongue-in-cheek, translates to “friendship is almost love!”) have a new samba song for each year. In this photo, the organizers at a pre-party are picking a samba from a few groups who want to lead the parade. Other blocos, like Boitatá, are known for their incredible musical talent. We discovered also that the Boitatá parade has lots of people who dress up in creative costumes.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most amazing and fun places to be from New Years through Carnival. Deena and I spent New Year’s Eve on Copacabana Beach where we enjoyed the “100 Years of Samba” show put on by the city. During the next 5 weeks, we took samba lessons and participated in block parties including Banda Ipanema and Cordão do Boitatá.
We spent one of the finalist nights in the bleechers of the Sambadrome; and the second night we, in full costume, joined the Portela Samba School for their parade in front of the judges and the crowds. Portela came in third place so we were invited back to the Sambadrome the following weekend for the parades of champions. This is where Deena lost her headpiece during the parade and crowds roared “oooo nãoooo…” Good thing it wasn’t for the judging!
It’s impossible not to create fantastic memories during Carnival time in Rio.
The video below is from one of the rehearsals for Boitatá:
One very charming neighborhood, or bairro (pronounced buy-ho), of Rio de Janeiro is Santa Teresa. Situated on a hill not far from the city center, it has amazing vistas of Rio and the bay.
A tram that connects the city center to Santa Teresa was built in the late 1800s. With its iconic yellow tram cars, it has become something of a symbol of both Rio and the bairro itself. It fell into a state of disrepair and together with some fatal accidents, it was closed. The residents of Santa Teresa protested until the government agreed to restore the line. Today, you can take a ride on at least part of it.
Perhaps because the views are amazing, perhaps because the location is so convenient, Santa Teresa has been a rather bohemian center hosting artists, actors and writers. It’s understandable. There isn’t a better place where one can enjoy a coffee or a beer above the din and dust of the city itself, and yet be so close.
Do you count countries visited? There’s a club, The Travelers Century Club, for people who have visited 100 or more countries.
We were once forced to stay the night in Ethiopia when our ongoing flight to Cape Town on Ethiopia Air had mechanical problems. Because we were accommodated in a dangerous area, we were asked not to leave the security of the hotel grounds until our flight the next day. One night in Ethiopia, where we only saw the airport and the hotel, would count as a country visited for a travel club member.
We, on the other hand, don’t count countries. We like to stay in one location for a month or more to allow the country’s culture and traditions to wash over us. We love to interact with locals and learn how they are different, or the same.
Our travel style is very different from those who travel for limited times every year, and maybe collect countries like merit badges. Sometimes, when someone mentions how many countries they’ve racked up, and we’re feeling a little cheeky, we ask them if they’ve visited the Principality of Ilheu da Pontinha. Because we have!
This tiny micro-nation is little more than a big rock in the port of Funchal on the island of Madeira. It was once the majestic Fort of São José, but in 1903 the Portuguese government needed money to finish building the harbor, so they sold the island to a British family that made wine in Madeira.
In 2000, the family, disinterested in the atoll, sold the land to a young Madeiran art teacher. It was discovered that the original warrant says the government sold the “possessions and the dominions” of the island. Since it’s not under any dominion, the new owner proclaimed the island to be an independent nation.
Never mind that a good chunk of the fort was cut down to build the harbor road and wall. Never mind that the island supports the harbor bridge. The rock island is still, at least in theory, a nation that answers to no king but its own.
Most people arriving in Madeira on a cruise ship take a shuttle bus or tour right past this speck of wonder. Others just walk by it on their way in and out of the port.
The ruler of this Liliputian nation, Prince Renato Barros, has a great sense of humor. He has made up an official flag, a crown and composed a national anthem. He has even declared a national dish – “takeout”!
The Principality of Ilheu da Pontinha has its own passport stamp. So when people tell us how many countries they’ve visited, we proudly present our passports and ask “You don’t have one of these, do you?”